The main variable of the study was
The main variable of the study was whether there was an association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and motor behavior. Additionally, it was investigated whether the effects of the COMT genotypes on the role played by tonic/phasic DA are associated with the stability/flexibility nature of the motor task. Only one study explicitly established the association between the COMT genotype and the roles played by tonic and phasic DA. More specifically, the role played by the Val allele in flexibility (Baetu et al., 2015). Therefore, we analyzed the other studies using some established criteria to categorize the tasks used in relation to flexibility or stability. We assumed that: (a) visuomotor Pralatrexate receptor tasks are associated with the phasic role (Val allele) of DA, requiring flexibility; and (b) sequential motor learning tasks are associated with the tonic role (Met allele) of DA, requiring stability. The following secondary variables were also analyzed: a) production characteristics (publication period, publication journal and researchers’ countries of origin); b) motor tasks used; c) dependent measures used; d) whether the association with any other cognitive function was investigated; and e) the interaction between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and other genes in motor behavior.
Discussion The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is related to the PFC cognitive functions. Studies that associated the COMT polymorphism and cognition in clinical (Nolan et al., 2004; Rosa et al., 2010; Sagud et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2014) and non-clinical (Malloy-Diniz et al., 2013; Costa et al., 2016) populations indicated an association between the PFC state and the type of cognitive processing required. Differences in the patterns of the prefrontal cortical activation and higher order cognitive performance are observed (Egan et al., 2001; Rosa et al., 2010), as the effects of the COMT genotypes on information processing are critically dependent on the nature of the information being processed (Tunbridge et al., 2006). Although the cognitive areas are closely connected to the areas of motor planning and execution, little is known about the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and motor behavior. Also, investigation of the relation of the COMT genotype on the roles played by phasic and tonic DA and the type of motor task is needed. Thus, this study aimed to review studies that investigated the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and motor behavior. The results were consistent regarding the association between the COMT polymorphism and motor behavior. That is, all the investigated studies showed some sort of association between these constructs. However, the results were inconsistent in relation to our hypotheses that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism would be associated with: (a) stability in sequential motor learning and (b) flexibility in visuomotor adaptation. Inconsistencies were found regarding the association between the roles played by phasic and tonic DA and the nature of the task, as half of the studies did not show an association between Met/Met and Val/Val genotypes and cognitive stability and flexibility, respectively. Moreover, opposing to the cognitive studies, the motor behavior studies showed no association between the COMT polymorphism and WM. Furthermore, interactions of the COMT genotypes and genotypes of different polymorphisms seem to predict motor performance and motor adaptation by means of a polygenic index that represents the number of high performance alleles.
Funding This study was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) (grant APQ-03305-15).
Conflict of interest
Introduction Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive patterns of gambling and is associated with impaired functioning (Hodgins et al., 2011). Problem gambling-related functional impairment may impact on every aspect of a person's life and many feel ill equipped to cope (Thon et al., 2014).